Director of Prince of Wales watched it fall ". . The program uses a series of complex and accurate algorithms to compute the percentage of hits to be expected on the target at various ranges, the proportion of hits on each exposed surface of the target's armored box, and the number of penetrations based on the U.S. Navy's WW II armor penetration equation given in ORD SK78841 [More details on this equation and its derivation are given in Nathan Okun's article '"Armor and Its Application to Warships - Part III," Warship International No. Tirpitz rapidly rolled over and buried her superstructure in the sea floor. This figure corresponds to only a 30° angle of elevation however, as Bismarck's guns could not elevate any higher. A Model 30 radar, known as the Hohentwiel, was mounted in 1944 in her topmast, and a Model 213 Würzburg fire-control radar was added on her stern 10.5 cm (4.1 in) Flak rangefinders. In fact, both of Hood's surviving witnesses who gave detailed testimony stated that a turn to port had just begun when the explosion occurred. It wasn't long before British recriminations began. A number of writers, including some members of the original boards of inquiry, have speculated that it was an explosion of torpedo warheads which directly or indirectly caused the loss of the ship. Esmond Knight, in the air defense station above Prince of Wales' bridge, and who was to lose his sight in the next few minutes of action, was later to recall ". In the confined space of a magazine, the relative amounts of gas evolved, and the ensuing internal pressures could easily spell the difference between disturbance and disaster. . A third bomb may have struck the port side of turret Caesar. "It was so bright, like a magnesium flare." Naval Weapons, Naval Technology and Naval Reunions, International Naval Research Organization, There is a natural possibility that the fire on the boat deck spread, and in so doing led to an explosion in the magazines. Dundas's evidence before the first board of inquiry is summarized in ADM 116/4351 pp. An air attack was launched early on the 9th; twelve Fairey Albacore torpedo bombers attacked the ship in three groups, and Tirpitz successfully evaded the torpedoes. Speed was increased to 26 knots at 2045 and 27 knots at 2054. The explosion, he said, ". A projectile from Bismarck may have penetrated her main belt and reached a magazine. "86 P.O. . On the not unreasonable assumption that unarmored ship's structure along the path would have approximately the same retarding characteristics as water, the nominal fuze delay range of from 0.035 to 0.07 seconds places the likely point of detonation squarely in the after magazines. Some 1,430 t (1,410 long tons) of water flooded the ship in fuel tanks and void spaces in the double bottom of the port side, which caused a list of one to two degrees, which was balanced by counter-flooding on the starboard side. All times given are Zone -2. [d] Her secondary armament consisted of twelve 15 cm L/55 guns, sixteen 10.5 cm L/65 and sixteen 3.7 cm (1.5 in) L/83, and initially twelve 2 cm (0.79 in) C/30 anti-aircraft guns. . The truth of the matter was that the United States didn’t really want the Prinz Eugen, but the ship was a liability and security risk that needed to be disposed of quickly. Other official figures83 give average four-gun pattern sizes for U.S. 14-in and 16-in [350mm and 406mm] guns as approximately 190 meters at our range of interest. Even at the closest possible range, belt armor penetration at the calculated obliquity of 47° would have only been about 100mm for an intact projectile and 103mm for a broken one, both of which are well under the thickness of even Hood's uppermost and thinnest belt. 1 were disabled by broken steam lines or severed power cables. . . Once Germany became aware of the British intent to match her battlecruiser buildup, she abandoned battlecruiser construction to concentrate on the production of submarines and the Admiralty correspondingly cancelled its ships as well, leaving Hood the sole survivor of an unlucky group that would once have totaled eleven. . 89 et. Alternatively, a shell may have gone over the main belt instead, or reached the magazines by passing underneath. Six planes were shot down in the attack. [60] Several other bombs landed within the anti-torpedo net barrier and caused significant cratering of the seabed; this removed much of the sandbank that had been constructed to prevent the ship from capsizing. The report concluded: "It is important the doubts concerning the loss of this ship should be cleared up if possible at a very early date, as although action is being taken to implement the lessons of both explanations, it is impossible to do this quickly for all our old capital ships if the true explanation is found by the Court. [3], After completing sea trials in early 1941, Tirpitz briefly served as the centrepiece of the Baltic Fleet, which was intended to prevent a possible break-out attempt by the Soviet Baltic Fleet. At least in the stern of the vessel, this drawing shows that the effective "draft" of the ship at any point along the side might range between 10.5 meters just forward of the mainmast to only 9.5 meters just forward of 'X' turret. PE will be on her way to the bottom before she can even think about torpedoes, assuming the damgerous things don't blow up on her deck. Forty-eight bombers and 29 fighters attacked the ship and scored two hits which caused minor damage. The British went to action stations at 0015. During the ensuing battle, the lighter armour of the battle cruiser Hood proved to be its downfall. Rowell, navigating officer of Prince of Wales, saw three splashes and saw the fourth shell hit. The noiselessness of the explosion constitutes strong circumstantial evidence that the fatal blast was caused not by the detonation of Hood's shells or torpedoes but by the more or less rapid combustion of her propellants. In simple terms Oo = Arcos [Cos(Fd)Cos(Id)Cos(Bpd - Rd)Sin(Fd) Sin(Id)], where Oo equals the resolved obliquity, Bpd equals the target angle, Id equals the inclination angle of the armor, Rd equals the rotation angle of the armor, basically its horizontal orientation within the ship, and Fd equals the angle of fall. I might say egg-shaped." 2nd or 3rd salvo straddled and fire broke out in 'Hood' in the vicinity of the port after 4-in gun mounting. "38 The Admiralty, still reeling from the shock of the loss, chose to file the letter as part of the official record. Although he didn't know whether the petrol for the boats ". 368 et. fixed ammunition R.U. We live in a marvelous age, an age when men have once more set foot upon the Titanic. [46] Swedish intelligence had meanwhile reported the German departures to the British Admiralty, which ordered the convoy to disperse. The entire final report is given in ADM 116/4351 pp. [39] Tirpitz, Admiral Hipper, and six destroyers sortied from Trondheim, while a second task force consisting of Lützow, Admiral Scheer, and six destroyers operated from Narvik and Bogenfjord. Prinz Eugen had been torpedoed by a British submarine at the entrance to the Fættenfjord, and was temporarily out of action. . . Assuming the initial values for Hood's armor to have been 200mm, 178mm, and 127mm, respectively, it is easy to vary the thickness of the deck armor and compute equivalent values for the thickness of the belt and ends while keeping the overall displacement the same. a fire with bright flame - it was a blue flame - and I got the impression at the time that it was a cordite fire. Although the German projectiles used by Bismarck did not have the special breakaway windscreen and cap characteristic of the Japanese diving projectiles, they were equipped with a rather brittle aluminum windscreen and a fairly flat faced 'knob and ring" armor-piercing cap design. The projectile would normally penetrate to a depth of about six calibers during its underwater run, corresponding to a depth of about 2.28 meters for Bismarck's 38cm shells. Are these scenarios all merely wild speculation? Operation Brawn, which was to have been carried out by 27 bombers and 36 fighters from Victorious and Furious, was to have taken place on 15 May, and Operation Tiger Claw was intended for 28 May. . The Times of London carried the story matter-of-factly on page 4 of the edition of Monday the 26th, calling it ". ammunition was being replenished before any order had been given. These values have been converted and rounded to metric units, in Imperial units the thicknesses were 5-in, 7-in, and 12-in., respectively. Concussive shock disabled the starboard turbine engine, and saltwater used to fight the fires reached the boilers and contaminated the feed water. . For a projectile of this type, therefore, penetration to a depth of 8.5 meters, or more than 22 calibers, is remarkable. "The 4-in. Pulqui2. All doors were marked in plain language.". 4 switchboard room. The solution involed launching a special spotter float planes from either of these Battleships hanger to fly ahead and spot for the enemy vessel. The reference to the "after screen" and "screen doors" remains mysterious to me. . Immediately after the explosion it is anticipated that the observer would have seen a gap in the ship's side, probably some 15 or 20 ft. radius down to the top of the 12-in belt. 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